Progress in Agriculture and Energy Extremeness of Living Nature Self – Organising
I. I. Sventickij, D. S. Strebkov, I. K. Jmakin. VIESCH (The All-union Research Institute of Electrification of Agriculture), 1-st Veschnjakovskij str., 2, 109456 Moscow, Russian Federation
There is realizing passage from research of agricultural materials properties and other subjects by physical methods of application of there procedures for basic agrotechnical processes and technical study in the field of agrophysics at the last time. Physics, biology and other boundary science branches are developing as well. The universal law of self-organizing systems energy extremeness is well-founded and defined in physics of self-organization, ecological bioenergetics and theory of evolution. The similar laws will be in general applied for analysis and improvement of basic agrotechnologycal process in agrophysics and agriculture in the future. An application biological self-organizing transformer of materials and energy is an important property of agriculture in process of agricultural production. Agriculture is a part of systems managed by man. Agro- and ecosystems are self-organizing ones. Since their management has to be based on laws of self-organization. Modern knowledge of agriculture and ecology presents a complex of experimental data expressed as empirical regularities, principles, laws which are not united reciprocally. Key values of agroecological knowledge (agroclimatic and irrigation potential of land, soil or its fertility, maximum efficiency of plants, their genetic and adaptation potential) have not established verbal or quantitative definitions. This fact basically complicates physical and mathematic analysis of agro- and ecosystems.
Keywords: energy extremeness, bioenergy, formulated as law of viability (3V)
The source of agrophysics development is border, closer branches of knowledge — physics, biology and agroecological science, accelerated progress of them has showed for the late decades. At first sight it is related to evident solutions of important for the whole nature science, but longtime unsolved problems:
existing contradiction between nature evolution according to the second low of thermodynamics (in direction of structures devastation, energy degradation, omnipresent and continuous growing entropy) and theories of biological evolution (of Darwin, synthetic), in compliance with which it (evolution) has utterly opposite direction: structures are constantly developing, improving; fundamental discord of the thermodynamics second law with dynamics of all physics, which is reflected in Puankare-Misra theorem (Prigozin I., 1985).
The results of unbalanced thermodynamics development (synergetic, self-organization physics and evolution) are fundamentally important achievements for the whole nature science, in compliance with this nature divided into self-organizing and non-self-organizing parts according to this thermodynamics (Prigozin I., 1985, Nikolis G., 1979, Sinergetika, 2000). This dividing is not less important than splitting of nature into living or inanimate one. According to basic (energy transforming especially) characteristics physical, chemical, self-organizing structures and processes are more closer to living ones then to non-self-organizing, physical, chemical structures.
The utilization of biological, self-organizing, living transformers of energy and matter is an important property of agriculture in production process. Agriculture represents a part of ecosystem managed by people; these ecosystems are self-organized ones. Their control has to be based on the self-organization laws. The base of agriculture and ecology modern knowledge is composed of numerous laws determined empirically, rules, regularities, principles (there are 250/5/ of them approximately). They are not logically joint and explained by natural science. Key values of agricultural, ecological knowledge (ecological, agroclimatic and soil improvement potentials of land; soil fertility, maximum productivity of plants, their genetic and adaptation potential) have not high-spread verbal and quantitative determinations. This fact makes more difficult agrophysical and mathematical analysis of agricultural and ecological systems.
Possibility of existence of physical law, opposite to the second law of thermodynamics, was emphasized by many scientists: I. I. Gvay, J. Lewis, M. Plank, S. A. Podolinskij, K. A. Timirjazev, N. A. Umov, K. E. Ciolkovskij, E. Schrodinger at al. For application of agrophysical methods in the main agricultural technologies and elaboration of agro- and ecosystems systemic analysis, the law of total bioenergetical direction of structures and living systems functions (Sventickij I. I.. 1982) was formulated, which was named of survival law (3V). 3V essence is opposite to the second law of thermodynamics: every unit of living nature is, in its individual or evolution development, spontaneously directed to the state of maximum utilization of free available energy with system of the trophic level including this system under existing conditions. In self-organizing systems 3V is implemented via different natural mechanisms.
3V direct experimental verification is more difficult because of the same reason as the second law of thermodynamics. Indirect experimental check of 3V was provided simultaneously with solution of practical agrophysical task: development of energy saving electrical lights for artificial radiation of plants for photosynthesis production. There is wide-spread opinion that plants are evolutionally adopted to spectrum composition of solar radiation. Therefore at production of lights for plants they endeavoured to produce the lamps with spectrum composition of radiation like solar one. On condition that 3V had higher affinity to solar spectrum in comparison with evolutionary adaptation of plants to solar spectrum, we rejected this traditional principle of harmony lights and solar radiation spectrum.
In reality one of expectation of plants energy adaptation mechanism to solar spectrum is done in following. Energy maximum in solar spectrum lies in a green area. For avoidance of overheating at high radiation the plants reflect maximum radiation in this area because of it spectrum effectiveness of photosynthesis in this spectrum is relatively small. The highest effectiveness of photosynthesis is in red spectrum (680 nm) because of higher absorption and quantity of photon per energy unit. Higher effectiveness of photosynthesis is in short-wave spectrum (400-450 nm) in consequence of better absorption.
In accordance with 3V determination the quantity criterion of plant-growing light development was assigned as effective output in relation of plant photosynthesis — photosynthesis output (ηΦ):
Radiation source photosynthesis output was increased up to 80 % in comparison with mercury light (Sventickij I. I., 1982) with selection of metals iodides addition into high pressure mercurous discharge. It was ensured with introduction into mercurous discharge of: lithium iodide (basic line of red radiation — 680 nm) and indium iodide (basic line of red radiation — 450 nm). Important characteristic of this DRF — 1000 plant-growing light, which was a target because of 3V reliability testing at lamp development, is its spectrum composition, which is "opposite" to solar one. Maximum of solar spectrum is in the green area (Fig. 1, line 1), but there is not radiation of developed DRF -1000 light green spectrum (Fig. 1, line 2). Solar spectrum is undivided (compact), but DRF — 1000 light spectrum is striped.
Long-time laboratory and operation experiments, realized by many scientific institutions (NIIOCH, TSCHA, IFR AS USSA, VIESCH, IAP AS USSA at al.), have showed that many kinds of plants (wheat, tomatoes, cucumbers, salad, reddish, strawberry and others) growed, developed and produced well under radiation of DRF — 1000 only. Analogous mercurous DRF — 1000 light was used as control, its spectrum is closer to solar one — wider part of its radiation lies in green area (Fig. 1, line 3). Calculated effectivity of DRF — 1000 light is confirmed: the same result with DRF — 1000 light was guaranteed by reducing electric output of radiation device with DRF — 1000 at 80 % (Sventickij I. I., 1982). These results have indirectly confirmed 3B reliability and simultaneously showed high effectivity of its exploitation for agrophysical and agricultural problems solution.
Figure 1. Distribution of radiation into spectrum φλ of: 1 – solar at the ground, 2 – DRF – 1000 lamp, 3 – DRF – 1000 lamp and 4 – photosynthesis spectrum effectiveness K.
According to 3V definition photosynthesis radiation energy (free in relation of photosynthesis radiation energy), determined by numerator expression of formula /1/, was used as a reference value for comprehensive assessment of agroecological factors on the base of their effect on plants (Glogov L., Sventickij I. I., Georgiev G., 1982) as well as for quantitative corresponding definition of key agroecological values in energy units (Sventickij I. I., Antoninov M. V. 1989).
Value of photosynthesis energy of solar radiation represents starting point in quantitative corresponding definition of soil potential fertility and maximum productivity of plants in absolute energy units. These natural science methodological elaboration have opened a possibility of systematic agrophysical analysis of agriculture main technologies.
With their help, for ex., it is possible to solve problems of optimum combination selection according to characteristics of plants alternative kinds (sorts, varieties) with the same ecological characteristics of land. It is necessary for energy saving optimization of energy crops growing with aim of energy production from biomass. Systematic bioenergy analysis is one way of alternative methods of rise of biofuel production energy effectivity at rape (Strebkov, D. S. 2000; Jevic P., Sediva Z., Porev I. A.) and other crops growing.
Elaborated procedure of systematic bioenergy analysis of agro- and ecosystems simplify and increase results of physical and mathematical methods application of agricultural processes quantitative analysis. Energy saving in APK (Krasnoscekov N. V., Lazovskij V. V., Strebkov D. S., 1994) principles are based on this methodology of natural science. Plant production energy-saving optimization computer system is worked out. The same systems can be developed for animal and other production. Energy-saving natural mechanisms are explained, which are the laws of survival, with the aim of their future application for improvement of basic technological processes of agriculture.
The important characteristic of agrotechnological basic processes is involved in distribution in space and extension in time. The best important and clearly identified natural mechanism of energy saving can be applied in them: intermolecular energy-saving interactions, which are evident in capillary phenomena, Brownian motion, evaporation, condensation and so on. Intermolecular interactions energy-saving mechanism arose in subjects of physical and chemical characters, it is wide-spread in organisms. Capillaries of higher vascular plants play an important part in energy-saving lighting of big quantity of water from soil to transpiration leaves. Capillaries of human and animals guarantee energy-saving transport of blood in organism.
Metabolites energy-saving transport of all organisms cells is realized by ,,mechanism of Brownian motion", which is liable to the thermodynamics second law. Brownian particle "feeds" with energy drawn from surrounding molecules, from the source with one temperature, which is not in harmony with the claim following from the thermodynamics second law. On the base of energy-saving intermolecular interactions natural mechanism it is possible to elaborate pumps and heating systems operating at minimum consumption of energy or without it. This natural mechanism can be a starting point for substantial improvement of many processes of agricultural technologies and machinery.
We know natural phenomena, which are empirically determined, but not explained by science. They are known as phenomena. 3V was used for 3V reliability detection and explanation some phenomena essence by natural science: golden section, possibility of all organisms kinds to reproduce in geometric sequence, structures and processes, described by fractal dependencies, beauty and harmony of self-organizing nature. Total methodical base of analysis was the laws of formal total logic. Following from 3V, energy economy is common important characteristic of studied phenomena.
Systematic analysis of many scientists’ experimental data of human and mammals’ heart activity has determined four principles of its energy economy (Cvetkov V. C., 1997), which represented 3V impact. Four types of heart rhythm in human and animal calm state correspond to golden sequence (Fibonacci numbers ratio). These data allowed drawing conclusions that structures and processes, organized in space and time according to golden sequence, produce the filling of beauty because of resonance with heart rhythm. Golden heart phenomenon originated in physical and chemical nature (in crystals), then it passed over to biological subjects (organisms and cardiovascular structure, population dynamics and so on). It is applied in art (architecture, painting and so on). It supports total energy-saving direction of all stages of nature evolution (physical, chemical, biological and social).
On the base of 3V demonstration mechanism, the energy-saving improvement of technology and technical means operating on rhythm principles is possible. The following example demonstrates this fact. Experiments on milking devices development were realized by dozen of scientists the long time. Ration of operation and relaxation time periods are ones of the important parameters determining of this device energy economy. This ration of up-to-date devices is in limits from 1.0 to 0.17. Arithmetic mean of this values determined experimentally is not random, it is near to value of golden sequence (0.618).
Cardiovascular system is structurally organized as energy-saving one according to golden sequence. Ratios of branched cuttings, diameters of their sequences are under golden sequence (Darvin Ch., 1937). Cardiovascular system can be used as perfect bionics model at formation of energy- and source-saving, difficult, branched nets for transport and distribution of electric power, liquid, gaseous and other substances.
Ch. Darvin has applied a phenomenon quality of all kinds of living organisms to reproduce on geometric sequence in absence of limits as initial principle at development of Biological evolution theory (13, p. 157). ‘Fight for survival is following from fast sequence which belongs to every living creature’s reproduction’. Further (13, p. 158). ‘There is not one exception of rule according to which every living creature naturally reproduces in this sequence…’ This initial principle went over to synthetic theory of biological evolution. Theories of biological evolution can not explain it. Its explanation of natural science follows from 3V definition, according to this all units of living nature (including organisms and populations) are spontaneously directed to the state of the best utilization of available free energy (food) under present conditions. For that reason there is ability of all organisms’ kinds to reproduce in geometric sequence. This phenomenon is 3V direct result.
Abstract fractal dependencies are known to mathematics more then 100 years (Smirnov B. M., 1991, Feder E., 1991). It is revealed today they have described structures and processes both physical and chemical (clouds outlines, coastal contours of natural reservoirs, Brownian motion trajectories and so on), and biological (trees contours, population dynamics and so on) as well as social ones (dynamics of economic processes). Phenomenon of fractals belongs to example of all mathematics phenomenalism. It was created as abstract science, which does not deal with concrete characteristics of real subjects, but it is successfully applied in knowledge branches studying these qualities. Graphical representation of fractals and subjects described by them have a beauty (Pajtgen Ch. O., Richter P.Ch., 1993), it is a quality joint with golden sequence. Common well-known characteristic of these phenomena is their self-similarity and scale invariance. Analysis on the base of 3V typical fractals qualities and subjects described by them allowed to determined the best important common characteristic — energy economy. Fractal dependencies allow revealing energy-saving structures and processes, which can be applied for improvement of technological processes and agricultural machinery.
Relation of common important phenomenon of golden sequences and fractal dependencies (subjects described by them), beauty and energy economy, gives the base for explanation of more common phenomenon: beauty and harmony of nature, which, evidently, reflect energy economy of self-organizing nature. Above-mentioned attempt of phenomenon explanation on 3V base emphasizes its certainty and high knowledge meaning. This law, its consequence and natural mechanism of appearance can be applied in agrophysical research as well as development of agrotechnology and agricultural machinery.
We have to emphasize 3V common scientific meaning. It reflects the most important characteristic of self-organized nature: it total energy-saving evolutional directionality. 3V key role is evident in the solution of nowadays global problems (Sventitskij I. I., 1981). 3V taking into account allows solving long-time unsolved, above-mentioned fundamental problems of science. Essence of this solution is very simple: application of thermodynamics second law has to be limited by non-self-organized (balanced) part of nature, for explanation of self-organized (non-balanced) nature should be applied 3V.
For problem solution of co-ordination of thermodynamics second law with physics dynamics all parts of physics has to be changed, as it is emphasized in (Prigozin I., 1985). At the beginning 3V was taking into account on the base of living nature specific quantities. 3V appearance search was proved for determination of cause of studied problem and possibility of its solution. It was determined that it, in its uncertain form, belonged to all parts of physics in the shape of phenomenon principles Ferma, the smallest action and so on. Following from nature "economy" (Sivuchin D. V., 1980) Ferma’s principle is theologically substantiated. All laws of geometrical optics are derived from this.
The smallest action principle was substantiated by Maupertuis (1740) at study of planets movement trajectories. Mathematician L. Eiler redid it in principle of extreme action. At expression of this principle in modern energy terminology the action can be both energy-saving (minimum) and energy-dissipating one (maximum). The smallest action principle corresponds to 3V and maximum principle is in accordance with thermodynamics second law which is known as principle of energy degradation (Puankare A., 1990). Physics usually investigates stable self-organising systems. The smallest action principle entered into classic mechanics as Hamilton’s equation. D. V. Gibbs (1982) applied Hamilton’s equation as groundwork for statistic mechanics elaboration. The smallest action principle is included into electrodynamics basic equation (Schrodinger’s equation) as Hamilton’s equation. Basic equation of relativistic electrodynamics (Durac’s equation) comprises Hamilton’s equation. The smallest action principle is included in Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi equation main in uncompleted dynamics of geometry (Uiler D. A., 1970).
Above-mentioned explanation justifies an application in physics and agrophysics in clear form 3V which opens fundamentally new possibilities in development of progressive, energy-, course-saving agrotechnologies and agricultural machinery.
Prigozin I. Ot suscestvujuscego k voznikajuscemu (From existing to emerging). M., Nauka, 1985
Nikolis G., Prigozin I. Samoorganizacija v neravnovesnych systemach (Self-organisation in unbalanced systems). M., Mir, 1979 Sinergetika. (Sinergetics). M., MGU, 2000
Ebeling W., Feistel R. Physic der Selbsorganisation und Evolution. Berlin. Academie Verlag, 1982
Rejmers H. F. Ekologija (teorii, zakony, pravila, principy i gipotezy).(Ecology, theories, laws, rules, principles and hypotheses). M. 1994
Sventickij I. I. Ekologiceskaja bioenergetika rastenij i selskochozjajstvennoe proizvodstvo (Plants ekological bioenergetic§ and agricultural production). Puscino, HCBI AN SSSR, 1982
Glogov L., Sventickij I. I., Georgiev G. Komplexnyj ucet fotosinteznoj energii izlucenija, temperatury i vlaznosti po ich vlijaniju na produktivnost rastenij v dinamike (Comprehensive account of photosynthetic energy of radiation, temperature and humidity in accordance with their effect on plants productivity in dynamics). Puscino, NCBI AN SSSR, 1982
Sventickij I. I., Antoninov M. V. Photosynthetic Model for conceptual Combination of Plant Growing and Enviroment. Photosynthetica, 1989 No 4, p. 82 — 86
Strebkov D. S. Energeticeskoje ispolzovanie biomassy (Biomass utilization for energy purposes). Energetika i elektromech. sel. chozjajstva. Nauc. trudy VIESCH, t.87,VIESCH, M.,2000, s.9-12
Jevic P., Sediva Z., Porev I.A. Technolog. i ekolog. aspekty isplzovanija biotopliva iz rastitel. biomassy (Technological and ecological aspects of utilisation of biofuel from phytomass). Energetika i elektromech.sel. chozjajstva. Nauc. trudy, t.87,VIESCH, M.,2000, s.309-322
Krasnoscekov N. V, Lazovskij V. V, Strebkov D.S. Ocnovy energosberezenija v APK (Energy saving basis in APK). Agrarnaja nauka, 1994, No 4, s. 2-5
Cvetkov V C. Serdce. Zolotoe secenije i simmetrija. (Heart. Golden sequence and symmetry.) Puscino, RAN, 1997
Darvin Ch. Proischozdenije vidov. (Kinds emergency) M.-L. OGIZ — Selchozgiz, 1937
Smirnov B. M. Fyzika fraktalnych klasterov. (Physics of fractal clusters). M., Nauka. 1991
FederE. Fraktaly (Fractals). M., Mir, 1991
Pajtgren Ch. O., Richter P.Ch. Krasota fraktalov (Fractals beauty). M., Mir, 1993
Sventickij I. I. Bioenergetic Trends-a Key to Solving Energy, Food and ecolog. Problems. Beyond the Crisis opportunity and challange. Pergamon Press, Oxford & New York, 1981, p. 1863-1869
Sivuchin D. V. Obscij kurs fyziky. Optika (Course of common physics. Optics). M., Nauka, 1980
Puankare A. O nauke. (About science). M., Nauka, 1990
Gibbs D. V. Termodinamika, statistices.fyzika.(Thermodynamics, statistic physics). M., Nauka, 1982 Uiler D. A. Predvidenie Ejnstejna ( Eistein’s foresight). M., Mir, 1970