1.2. An energy source of type implosion.
Spontaneous energy transfer can be only when above, than the consumer has potential of this energy. In case of low potential energy source (environment) it is impossible, since it will contradict known laws for all kinds of energy. For example, in simple system the cold body will not give thermal energy to hot body (the second law of thermodynamics).
That or different way creates area in which still below, than the environment (to create potential hole ) has potential the low potential.
There will be carry of energy from external low potential environments in potential hole . Extracted thus energy has very low potential in comparison with potential of the similar energy consumer. Therefore this energy cannot be accepted by the consumer. But to the consumer not necessarily to receive energy that kind that was extracted. Energy from outside is necessary for the consumer for:
— Uses of this energy, without fulfillment of work (for example, received from outside thermal energy for heating premises);
— Receptions of useful work at once, at carry low potential energy from outside in potential hole;
— Reception of useful work from energy carried to the consumer.
On way carry of energy it is possible to put the converter which will carry out one of following functions: — to transform part of this energy to other kind Г° and then by means of this energy to get job and; — a part of transferable energy to transform into work and (this mode of the converter will be engine). Such process when energy is transferred not from the engine to environment (explosion), and from environment in the engine, by Victor Shauberger definition, refers to implosion.
It is necessary to spend certain energy Ed for creation of potential hole and management process. The consumer receives energy Ec from which it necessary to subtract energy going from the consumer on the organization of physical process on extraction energy Ed. Thus, the net energy received by the consumer, will be Ec — Ed. The attitude of net energy Ec received by the consumer — Ed to energy spent for the organization of physical process Ed will refer to as factor of strengthening energy k k = (Ec — Ed) / Ed (1) For the consumer expediently (except for special cases) when the factor of strengthening energy is more 1. In this case the consumer will receive energy more, than he has spent for the organization of physical process on extraction low potential energy from environment. If the factor of energy strengthening is those, that the net energy has enough Ec — Ed for requirement of the consumer in this case the system becomes regarding power consumption on maintenance and management of physical process self-sufficient, i.e. such energy source does not consume for the work of energy from the outside, it becomes independent. The attitude of net energy Ec received by the consumer — Ed to energy Ee received from the outside + Ed will be efficiency η this converter as energy source: η = (Ee + Ed) / (Ee + Ed) (2) By virtue the law of energy conservation Ee ≥ Ec, therefore the efficiency implosive energy source will be always η ≤ 1. I.e. perpetuums mobile are impossible as well in implosive energy sources. The expediency and benefit for the consumer in this energy source consists in that it spent energy for formation potential hole and management of physical process less, than receives net energy at extraction from environment (i.e. k ≥ 1).
Work can be made, if on way carry of energy the converter (engine) which will transform part of extracted energy to work will be placed. For example, difference of temperatures can ensure the functioning into the engine on which output there will be mechanical energy of shaft rotation, and further electric energy from the generator, connected with this shaft. The consumer receives mechanical or electric energy instead of thermal. If necessary, this energy can be transformed in thermal. This way directly the consumer receives thermal energy cannot. It not lacks. Such way of energy selection from cold bodies was offered by Victor Kushin. In usual thermal engines of EFFICIENCY there is less than unit in connection with losses of thermal energy on way of carry from hot to cold body and rubbing parts. In engines of type implosion thermal losses cannot occur basically because the ambient temperature will be above temperature of working engine body. Therefore engines of type implosion with other things being equal should have EFFICIENCY above, than usual thermal engines.
1.3. Energy source type the energy amplifier.
It is possible extraction low potential energy and rising of its potential above, than the consumer has. It is necessary to spend certain energy Ed for creation of potential hole and management process. If the factor of strengthening energy will be k ≥ 1 such device will be the energy amplifier. For extraction low potential energy the working body with which probably to make the following below manipulation gets out or created working body. A working body can be area low potential environments or area of the consumer, or area between environment and the consumer. Extraction energy from environment, transformation of this energy and transfer to consumer occurs by means of carry energy by working body (figs. 1, 2). The working body can be any nature (gas, liquid, firm bodies, electromagnetic or other fields). The working body in the converter can be one nature; can consist of one or several substances. At carry of energy working body can move in space or remain on place. Are used there ways to change physical properties or to create special forms of movement in working body which will lead to that will possible: — to extract energy from low potential environments in working body; — potential of this energy to lift from ultra low up to high potential; — to transfer this energy to the consumer. To working body fresh portions surrounding low potential environments (or continuous inflow of new energy portions from possible outside). At all these changes of properties, forms of movement and carry energy the law of energy conservation, naturally, remains in force. Above listed conditions concern both to known kinds of energy, and poorly studied or not opened yet. In working body of potential below, than the environment, transformation characteristics extracted energy in body with the purpose of raising potential energy above has conditions of zone creation, than the consumer has is possible to carry out in the various ways: oscillatory, wave and vortical movements of any physical nature, phase transformations, chemical reactions, breaks entirely things (for example, cavitations) and many other.
For the organization physical process extraction low potential and carry it is necessary for energy to allocate energy Ed:
— For creation in working body area with ultra low potential;
— For creation in working body area with high potential; — for extraction energy in working body from environment;
— For rise potential of working body from ultra low level up to high;
— For transfer extracted energy to the consumer;
— For submission working body of environment fresh portions (inflow of energy new portions from outside);
— For management this process. The typical scheme of source low potential is shown energy on figs. 1 and 2.
The scheme of energy carries from low potential areas to high potential. Fig. 1.
Structure of the amplifier of energy (for variant of independent energy source the external energy source is cleaned, and energy moves from energy of the consumer, — it is shown by dotted line). Fig. 2.
Transfer low potential energy Ee to the consumer is possible at performance of following consecutive operations:
1. The energy extraction. With potential P1 below, than environment P0 (figs has area creation (potential hole). 1 and figs. 2). Otherwise energy transition from environment will not occur. Potential of corresponding energy (temperature, pressure, electromagnetic field level or other.) should be below, than in surrounding low potential to environment. They are used there ways to change physical properties or to create special forms of movement in working body which will lead to that in working body there will be area with potential below (ultra low potential), than environment has surrounding low potential. This area at extraction energy should have communications with low potential environment.
2. Transformation energy characteristics. Extracted energy potential becomes lower in relation to potential of the consumer, than the environment had. Therefore usual by extracted energy cannot be transferred to the consumer. Therefore physical characteristics extracted energy should be transformed from low P1 up to high P2 a level, above a level, than consumer P3 (see figs has. 1 and the transformer of characteristics of a working body on figs. 2). Transformation of characteristics of energy can occur as inside of one kind of energy, and transformation to other kind of energy. For the consumer following kinds of energy are suitable for use: — thermal; — mechanical; — electric; — manufactures of fuel, for example, hydrogen. On an output of the transformer of characteristics of energy, energy should have above that, which the consumer has. By development of the mechanism of transformation of characteristics of energy the law of conservation of energy should be observed. Are used there are) ways to change physical properties or to create special forms of movement in a working body which will lead to that in a working body to appear the area with potential above, than the consumer has.
3. Transfer of energy to the consumer. The received energy high potential level by means of the transferring converter is transferred the consumer (see figs. 1 and 2). This problem is well solved in known high potential energy sources.
4. The pump. At continuous process extraction submission new portions of environment is necessary for energy. For energy converters of small capacity will be natural (convective or diffuse) submission of substance from environment enough. At greater capacities of the converter the special pump (see Figs is required for this purpose 1).
5. The force blocks formation of working body characteristics. In all elements of the energy converter (see item 1-3) is necessary for formation of demanded modes the force block of formation of characteristics of a working body (see figs. 1).
6. The block of management. For maintenance of this process inside of the energy converter the special control system (the block of management, see figs is required 2).
7. An external energy source. For maintenance work of the energy converter the external energy source (see figs is required. 2). In case this energy undertakes from extracted energy for the consumer, the amplifier of energy turning on independent energy source. The common principles described above extraction low potential energy and structure of the energy amplifier are universal and suitable for any kind energy (thermal, atmosphere pressure, gravitational, electromagnetic and other little-known or known yet physical fields and energies).
Comparison energy sources of type implosion with the energy amplifier.
Process implosion is process as the first part at the energy amplifier.
Possible advantages of implosion way in comparison with the energy amplifier:
— For formations of physical process to be spent it less than energy;
— There is smaller losses extracted energy on way of work fulfillment for the consumer;
— Easier design.
1.4. The conclusion
1. It has been above shown, in very simplified kind, the mechanism and reality of birth energy source implosive type and the energy amplifier. These of energy source can be the different physical nature. Such mechanism can be present at birth tornado, fireball. Similar mechanisms, basically, presume to be born to various carries of energy to various kinds of energy, including in those kinds of energy which to us they known yet.
2. Above described principles of amplifiers creation and independent energy sources show, that creation of such converters is extremely complex and thin process. Necessary condition (but sufficient condition yet) should be, that structure of the converter looked like, shown on figs. 2, and physical processes proceeded under the scheme shown on figs. 1. Amplifiers low potential energy of environment allow to look on other at numerous works with the unusual phenomena, "perpetuums mobile" or over individual engines , etc.
3. Amplifiers of energy, that extracting energy from low potential environments at level of microcosm, will have difficultly fixed communications. Therefore such amplifiers can be presented wrongly as the converters taking energy anywhere, from vacuum, etc. It induces taking great interest enthusiasts to approve, that they have created "perpetuum mobile", etc.
4. Extraction low potential energy of microcosm (nuclear kernels, electrons, etc. micro particles) it is connected with transcendentally complex researches. Thus it will be necessary to open line of the unknown physical phenomena still. These sources low potential energy can have still known and unknown harmful kinds of radiation.
5. Variety, labor input and volume of researches and development of ex-tractors low potential energy on two orders above, than that the mankind has made at development high potential energy sources. During too time it is necessary to make efforts that practically suitable samples have been received the nearest 3 years, and equipment of all Mankind by renewed energy sources has occurred not further, than for 15 years.
6. Therefore it is extremely important to define that direction of works which will be priority. In view of stated, it is expedient to make in the beginning the main rate on creation of energy sources extracting low potential energy of environment:
— Pressure energy of atmosphere and water column of the rivers and the seas.
Extracted energy can be used by the consumer in the form of:
— Energy (thermal, kinetic, pressure, electric or others.);
— Reception of useful work at once at extraction low potential energy.
The wind- hydro generator and the vortex-oscillatory amplifier have opportunity combination.
2. Sources low potential energy from atmosphere.
(Physical and mathematical models low potential energy extraction of atmosphere by means of various physical processes).
From atmosphere it is possible to extract following kinds of energy:
2. Pressure of atmosphere.
2.1. Extraction thermal energy of atmosphere.
2.1.1. Situations now. Analogue
The mechanism of atmospheric air heating by energy of the sun and emerging heated up air in vertical pipe under influence of solar energy is used.
At movement ways upwards air the electro generator with the turbine which takes away a part of mechanical energy of air rising upwards is put. The limiting efficiency extraction energy is defined by cycle of thermal engine Karno.
About surface of the ground it is possible to create physical conditions at which the temperatures of air will more than in the top layers. Owing to it the density of air about surface will more, than above and the bottom areas of air will emerge under Archimedes action forces.
Thermal energy by means of air emerging warm area can transformed to mechanical energy. As matter of fact it will be the thermal engine. The efficiency of such converter for ideal case will be defined by cycle Karno.
On schedules it is shown to efficiency for the ideal converter with difference temperatures between heated up air and cold top layers in 10, 20 and 30 degrees.
For reception of electric atmosphere the design is under construction of heat on this way consisting of transparent roof and high tower. Under roof air under action of solar beams heats up and rises in tower upwards. On way of air rising upwards put the electro generator with blades. Rising air rotates blades and the generator develops electric energy.
Such solar air power stations have real efficiency much less ideal and have it no more than 2 %.
In solar air stations which were under construction earlier and above described way is now used. These power stations have not found wide application because have serious lacks:
1. Very low efficiency.
2. The big cost of construction.
3. Very much greater dimensions.
4. Complexities at operation, including necessity constant clearing of the big roof surface from dust and snows.
For elimination above the listed lacks and efficiency increase of solar air power stations we offer various ways additional extraction to energy low potential environments.
2.1.2. A way extraction thermal energy from low potential thermal energy of atmosphere by means of vortex (KNOW HOW):
In figures the scheme extraction is shown to kinetic energy of air stream and low potential to thermal energy:
— Convective transfer (figure at the left);
— Diffusion transfer of energy (figure on the right).
2.1.3. A way extraction thermal energy from low potential thermal energy and from energy at water condensation from atmosphere by means of vortex (KNOW HOW):
In figures the scheme extraction is shown to kinetic energy of air stream and low potential to thermal energy and water condensation from atmosphere:
2.1.4. A way of strengthening of kinetic energy of jet due to extraction low potential thermal energy and condensation water energy from atmosphere by means of vortex (KNOW HOW)
2.2. Extraction thermal energy of atmosphere.
Pressure energy of quiet environment, under the certain physical conditions (Know How), can extracting and can be in some tens times more energy of the device created vortex. It is necessary to emphasize, that our researches base on the classical fundamental physics and they works continuation of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Nicola Tesla, Victor Shauberger, Professors Alexander Predvoditelev, Nobel winner Ilya Prigozhin and many other scientists.
2.2.1. Reception of additional kinetic energy of jet due to extraction pressure energy of atmosphere (KNOW HOW).
2.2.2. Reception of additional kinetic energy of jet due to extraction pressure energy of atmosphere (KNOW HOW) by means of vortex (KNOW HOW).
2.2.3. Reception of additional kinetic energy of jet due to extraction pressure energy of atmosphere by means of spiral vortex (KNOW HOW).
2.2.4. A way extraction thermal energy from low potential pressure energy of atmosphere by means of vortex (KNOW HOW):
In figures the scheme extraction is shown to kinetic energy of air stream and low potential to thermal energy and condensation of water from atmosphere:
2.2.5. Ways of extraction low potential thermal and potential (pressure) energy by means of vortex (KNOW HOW) are developed:
At figures the common case — simultaneous extraction is shown to kinetic wind power and currents and low potential energy.
3. The common principles mechanisms designing on creation necessary aerodynamic, thermodynamic and other modes providing performance of problem on extraction energy from air streams, heated up the sun with simultaneous extraction low potential thermal energy and pressure energy of atmosphere.
For creation of the necessary aerodynamic, thermodynamic and other modes providing performance of problem on extraction high potential and low potential energy of atmosphere is offered to create a special vortex.
3.1. Ways generation of vortex. Analogues
3.1.1. Expediency in creation of vortex operated movement.
Vortex movement or other worker of bodies presumes air: 1. Extracting various kinds low potential energy of atmosphere. 2. To operate in the necessary direction physical processes and trajectories of air movement in traditional solar power stations. At creation of solar air power stations use vortex movement presumes to solve many difficult problems in the organization of physical process and design of power station and sharply lower cost of these power stations and their dimensions.
Vortex movement is one of the most perspective directions. But vortexes in known devices created by means of various bodies rotation, the compressor, etc. Efficiency of these drives is not great. Therefore there are no positive results.
Following attempts have been made:
Louis Michaud, inventor of the
AVE Atmospheric Vortex Engine
By imitating nature, we can create vortex using low temperature heat sources.
If Mother Nature produces spontaneous vortices 30 from seawater then we ought to be able to use 40. Waste
Water to create an artificial vortex and extract energy.
Web site: http: // vortexengine.ca/
The vortex heat pump
It is known, that Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube divides air entering into it on cold and hot.
Univ.Prof. Dr.sc.techn. Jürgen U. Keller
"Optimal Design of the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube" Y. Soni and W.J. Thomson Transactions of the ASME
Journal of Heat Transfer pp 316-317, May 1975
"Build vortex Tube" The Amateur Scientist Scientific American, November 1958
"The heat pump in vortex tube" B. Ahlborn, J.U. Keller and E. Rebhan Journal of Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics Vol. 23, pp159-165 (1998)
Univ. Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Jürgen U. Keller
"Optimal Design of the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube" Y. Soni and W.J. Thomson Transactions of the ASME
Journal of Heat Transfer pp 316-317, May 1975
"Build vortex Tube" The Amateur Scientist Scientific American, November 1958
"The heat pump in vortex tube" B. Ahlborn, J.U. Keller and E. Rebhan Journal of Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics Vol 23, pp159-165 (1998)
Prof. Dr. J. U. Keller and Prof. Boye K. Ahlborn have decided to use this effect for extraction low potential thermal energy of atmosphere.
Their ideas consist following. Atmospheric air is passed through low temperature zone of vortex tube (cold zone vortex tube temperature below, than air temperature) and air gives to tube the thermal energy. Then from the tube atmospheric air is thrown out outside, thus it has temperature lower, than had earlier. Extracted energy transferred to the hot zone of tube. Thus the temperature of hot zone becomes higher, than it was without extraction energy of an environment.
Breadboard models of the heat pump on the basis of vortex tube have been created. Test results have shown that energy on output of the heat pump of this type is less than energy submitted on the compressor. That is the converter with transformation factor less than 1 has turned out. This result could be expected in advance. In vortex tube only 10-15 % of energy that submitted on the compressor going on formation of the vortex movement inside of the tube (and accordingly on division of air temperature inside of vortex). Other energy to be carried away together with is thrown out in atmosphere with the big air speed (In other way the vortex tube will not work). At good situation in 2-4 times more energy can extracting, than has energy the vortex in the tube. As result we have:
— Energy in vortex of tube at 6-10 is less than times, than energy submitted on the compressor,
— Extraction energy from an environment is possible (it is hypothesis) in 2-4 times more energy of vortex. — As result we receive, that the heat pump with vortex tube does not give energy gain on output of the device due to "gratuitous energy" environment.
3.1.3. The conclusion on analogues.
1. The way of reception of vortexes by means effect of Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube has very low efficiency, not above 15 %. Therefore application of this type vortex for extraction low potential to energy of atmosphere has not given size of factor energy strengthening more than 1.
2. The way of energy reception offered Louis Michaud deserves studying and application.
3. For successful extraction energy of atmosphere it is necessary for realization to solve three problems (or part from them): — to increase efficiency of the device for generating high-speed vortex which will divide temperature of external atmospheric air; — to increase factor of strengthening of the converter (vortex) due to greater downturn of atmosphere temperature and extraction thermal energy of atmosphere at moisture condensation; — to increase factor of strengthening of the converter (vortex) due to extraction pressure energy of atmosphere or water column.
4. It is necessary to find way and type vortex which successfully would carry out of problem.
3.2. The common principles extraction low potential thermal energy from quiet environment by means vortex is developed.
(Vortex-oscillatory the thermal pump)
Vortex movement is one of the most perspective directions. But vortexes in known devices are created by means of various bodies rotation, the compressor, etc. Efficiency of these drives is not great. Therefore have no positive results. We create drive in which by means fluctuations of the special form very intensive vortexes are created at very small energy expenses. It is reached by that generation vortex occurs by means of fluctuations (it differs from low economical ways of generation vortex by means of various rotations, the compressor, for example from Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, etc.). Simultaneously with fluctuations they used for annihilation or hydro dynamical resistance at movement vortex.
In offered our device vortex is created by means of only fluctuations of the special form, without the compressor.
3.2.1. Way of vortex creation by means of fluctuations (KNOW HOW).
We create drive in which by means fluctuations of the special form very intensive vortexes have created at very small energy expenses. It is reached by that generation vortex occurs by means of fluctuations (it differs from low economical ways of generation vortex by means of various rotations, the compressor, for example from Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, etc.). Simultaneously with it fluctuations have used for annihilation aero or hydro dynamical resistance at movement vortex.
Inside vortex the zone (to similarly Ranque effect in vortex tube), below an ambient temperature is created ow-temperature. The environment, vortex, is pumped over through an internal zone vortex and thrown out outside. Thus, owing to a difference of temperature between an acting jet from an environment and an internal part vortex, last heats up due to selection of thermal energy from outside of (from a jet) .Р°жџґhe further movement, inside of the vortex, particles get in external aero vortex. There they have temperature above, than would have without selection of energy from an environment. Selection of energy for the consumer occurs from an external high-temperature zone. At selection of energy from a usual vortex tube this energy will not be more than energy of the compressor created vortex effect. In our case selected energy will consist of energy of the device excited vortex-oscillatory effect (vortex tube of new type) and, that the most important, from energy of a quiet environment utilized by means vortex. Energy from a quiet environment, under the certain physical conditions (Know How), can be in some tens times more energy of the device created vortex. The essence of work consists in vortex-oscillatory of the thermal pump. Unlike known thermal pumps vortex-oscillatory the thermal pump can extracting not only thermal energy low potential environments by its cooling, but thermal energy at moisture condensation from atmosphere and potential energy pressure of atmosphere or water column. It is necessary to emphasize, that our researches based on the classical fundamental physics and are continuation of works of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Nicola Tesla, and Victor Shauberger, professors Alexander Predvoditelev, Nobel winner Ilya Prigozhin and many other scientists. The installation which has confirmed experimentally effect of vortex creation movement by means of application for these made is more whole only mechanical fluctuations of the special form. Experiments have confirmed very low power expenses for generation vortex. Further us is planned to increase speed vortex and to create inside vortex zone with temperature below an environment. It is real, since such downturn of temperature is already known, for example, in Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, in intensive vortex cyclones. Then not represent basic problems to pass through this cold zone air or water which will give thermal energy, being even more cooled (see figs. above). Particles vortex transfer the energy received from an environment in area where the temperature above, than has the consumer, and give energy to the consumer. For carrying out of these works it is required to create new installation (for these purpose investments are required).